This course is free to approved members
Processes should be designed as far as possible to be inherently safe. Inherent safety principles involve removing or reducing hazardous inventory, or ensuring that the process design is so robust that the likelihood of a hazardous event is extremely low when compared to other risks.
However, it is not always possible to reduce risk to tolerable levels purely using inherent safety measures. Where further risk reduction is required, protection layers will be needed to prevent failures and incidents propagating into accidents. Mitigation layers may also be required to minimise the consequences of hazardous failure events.
The primary objective of a LoPA study is to determine scenario risks in the context of initiating events and independent protection layers. A LoPA study will take selected hazardous scenarios identified during PHA/HAZOP, and assess them in more detail.